Mitochondria are multitasking organelles involved in ATP synthesis, reactive oxygen species ROS production, calcium signalling and apoptosis; and mitochondrial defects are known to cause physiological dysfunction, including infertility. The goal of this review was to identify and discuss common themes in mitochondrial function related to mammalian reproduction. The scientific literature was searched for studies reporting on the several aspects of mitochondrial activity in mammalian testis, sperm, oocytes, early embryos and embryonic stem cells. Metabolic shifts from mitochondria-produced ATP to glycolysis occur at several stages, notably during gametogenesis and early embryo development, either reflecting developmental switches or substrate availability. The exact role of sperm mitochondria is especially controversial.
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Hijacked mitochondria could induce COVID, study says - The Reporter | UAB
Reductions in insulin sensitivity in conjunction with muscle mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported to occur in many conditions including aging. The objective was to determine whether insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are directly related to chronological age or are related to age-related changes in body composition. Twelve young lean, 12 young obese, 12 elderly lean, and 12 elderly obese sedentary adults were studied. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production rates MAPRs were measured in freshly isolated mitochondria obtained from vastus lateralis biopsy samples using the luciferase reaction. Obese participants, independent of age, had reduced insulin sensitivity based on lower rates of glucose infusion during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. In contrast, age had no independent effect on insulin sensitivity. However, the elderly participants had lower muscle MAPRs than the young participants, independent of obesity.
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Keshav Singh, Ph. Mitochondria, famously, are known as the "powerhouse of the cell. The researchers do not yet have experimental evidence to prove what is inside these structures, but "I suspect that these mitochondria-derived double-vesicles, which function as portable organelles, are taking the viral information to the endoplasmic reticulum, like porters," Singh said.